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Bed bugs: two words that can create psychological havoc in most people. Although bed bugs were nearly wiped out in the developed world by the 1950s, these tiny parasitic insects have made a tremendous comeback in recent years. Bed bugs are found almost everywhere humans inhabit like single-family homes, condos, apartments, hotels, and motels. Additionally, there are increasing incidents of bed bugs infesting places such as retail stores, movie theaters, public transportation, and restaurants. We have created “The Essential Guide to Bed Bugs” to answer all of your bed bug control questions. This resource will also provide guidance if you have an infestation.
The common bed bugs, Cimex lectularius, are blood-feeding insects in the family cimicidae. They are temporary ectoparasites, meaning they exist on the outside of their hosts to feed, and spend their time between blood-meals hiding in nearby cracks and crevices. They have piercing and sucking mouthparts for feeding purposes, and both males and females of all life stages feed exclusively on blood. Their preferred host is humans, though they will feed on other vertebrates.
Their color will vary, depending on their stage of life and also when they last fed. Early-stage bed bug nymphs are translucent to straw-colored, but have a crimson-colored center if they have recently fed. As bed bugs get older, they darken. Adult bed bugs appear as a mahogany brown color, or a darker red if they are digesting a blood-meal.
A trained specialist can tell whether you have bed bugs or something else, but it’s pretty hard for the average person to know. There are some insects and close relatives that can resemble bed bugs including:
Bat bugs – An examination with a microscope is required to accurately determine the difference between bed bugs and bat bugs. Bat bugs develop in colonies of bats, and oftentimes, unbeknownst to them, homeowners may have a colony of bats residing somewhere in the structure. These bugs may enter into living spaces in search of a host, and are commonly found wandering in attics or upstairs hallways. While they can bite humans, bat bugs cannot sustain and reproduce in the absence of bats.
Bed bug adults are about the size of an apple seed, measuring around 5mm long. Those in earlier life stages are much smaller. Bed bug eggs are 1mm in length, which is about half the size of a grain of rice. Newly hatched nymphs are about the size of a pinhead—looking much like a tiny “moving freckle”. As nymphs molt and grow larger, they become easier to see.
Beds – including box springs, mattresses, headboards, mattress covers
Couches – including cushions and pillows
Any other areas where people are sedentary for long periods of time
As infestations grow larger, bed bugs tend to spread out within a room and can end up in unusual places such as behind baseboards on curtains, along ceilings, in electrical outlets, and behind pictures.
Bed bugs have been around for thousands of years. Many experts believe that bed bugs evolved from bat bugs when cave dwellers first began taking up residence in the same caves as the bats. They think that bed bugs switched from feeding on the blood of bats and birds to feeding on humans.
As for how they ended up with you, bed bugs can crawl into your luggage or any other belongings, and catch a ride to your residence. They can also lay eggs on your belongings and return to their hiding spot, leaving behind a future generation that will emerge at a new location. You can pick these little creatures up from any infested area or from anyone carrying items that have also been to areas with an infestation.
Apartment buildings and condominiums have led to the expansion of some bed bug populations. In multi-family housing units like these, bed bugs can crawl out of one residence, down a hallway, and into another residence. They can also travel within the walls.
Bed bugs live an average of about 10 months. They can survive for weeks to several months without feeding, depending on their life stage and surrounding environmental conditions.
Bed bugs can be found anywhere that humans inhabit from houses and places of business to public transportation. Some examples include hotel rooms, hospital rooms, apartments, single-family homes, condominiums, retirement homes, movie theaters, office buildings, and cruise ships, to name a few. They are found throughout the world, in both developed and undeveloped countries. Bed bugs must live close to their human hosts and are therefore found in man-made structures and never free-living in the wild.
Bed bugs are most attracted to humans compared to all other potential vertebrate hosts. Bed bugs use multiple cues in order to detect humans, including:
There are several ways to detect bed bugs, but for the average person, bed bugs can be very difficult to find.
Bites – Bites are not a good indicator for bed bugs because not everyone reacts the same way to a bed bug bite. Some people will not experience any type of reaction, while others will develop itchy red welts. Additionally, it is nearly impossible to distinguish a bed bug bite from the bite of other insects, like mosquitoes.
Fecal spotting – Digested bloodstains appear as small dots of black on mattresses, box springs, and bedding. On harder surfaces, bed bug droppings dry and bead up more. Fecal spots are usually found in areas where bed bugs like to hide — along the seams or under the tags of mattresses and box springs.
Live bugs – Bed bugs will hide in areas such as the seams or tags of mattresses and box springs, screw holes on the headboard joints, along bed frames, and in any other nearby crack or crevice. These areas can also include your nightstand or behind a picture hanging over your bed.
Cast skins– Since bed bugs molt before each life stage, you will often find their cast skins in areas where an infestation is present. Cast skins are tan to brown in color, and look like small insect “shells.”
Our specialists are trained to look for signs of bed bugs and will detect them by performing a thorough inspection with a bright flashlight. Another way to detect an infestation is by using specially trained bed bug dogs. These dogs are trained to detect the scent of live bed bugs and their eggs, even at low levels.
A more recent development used by pest management professionals to detect bed bugs is active bed bug monitors. A chemical base attractant is placed in a specially designed device that will lure and trap these pests.
Bed bugs feed exclusively on the blood of vertebrates, with humans being their preferred host. A blood meal is required for bed bugs to reach each life stage and to reproduce. When hosts are present and blood meals are readily available, bed bugs will develop rapidly, and infestations will quickly progress and become unmanageable.
They have an interesting form of reproduction known as traumatic insemination. Male bed bugs use their copulatory organ to puncture the body wall of the female’s abdomen, and inject their sperm directly into a specialized organ.
After successfully mating, female bed bugs typically lay about five to seven eggs per week. One female lays anywhere from 200 to 500 eggs in her lifetime.
Bed bugs are usually brought home accidentally on a piece of luggage, backpack, second-hand mattress, or used piece of furniture. They are found in 4-star hotels as well as low-end motels, and in any home, regardless of the race, ethnicity, or culture of its inhabitants. Bed bugs also don’t discriminate between those who are clean and those in need of a shower.
A dirty or cluttered house has nothing to do with bed bug attraction. However, rooms with extensive clutter can provide more places for bed bugs to hide, and therefore make bed bugs harder to remove.
Bed bugs are very effective and efficient travelers. They do not fly, jump, or want to live on humans. Bed bugs hitchhike on personal belongings such as luggage or backpacks, or in items such as used furniture, and are transported via humans to new places which they can then infest.
Once bed bugs have infested an area, they can then spread out locally to infest adjacent rooms (in houses and hotels) or other units (in apartment buildings). They do this by crawling into openings such as vents, electrical conduits of adjoining walls, or even beneath doors into hallways.
They transfer on personal objects via close proximity. A person can transport bed bugs on an infested item, such as a backpack, handbag, or piece of luggage. Once set down, bed bugs will leave these items in search of a blood meal and can climb onto other items. Bed bugs can also be transferred via the purchase of used, infested furniture and mattresses.
Bed bugs may be biting, but if a person doesn’t have a reaction, they might not know it. It also depends on where the bed bugs are infesting. For example, two people can be in a bed, but if the cluster of bed bugs is closer to one person, that may result in that person getting bitten more than the other. Over time, as the bed bugs reproduce and the infestation level increases, the other person will most likely be bitten as well.
Bed bugs can move pretty fast, with adults crawling up to 5 feet in about a minute.
Bed bugs are usually most active at night. They prefer to feed when you are asleep and are less likely to move or wake up as a result of them feeding. However, bed bugs will adapt to take advantage of a food source. If you work at night and are home during the day, they can feed off of you during the day while you are sleeping.
Some people describe bed bugs as smelling like coriander or cilantro of varying intensities – depending on the level of infestation. When infestation levels are low, there typically isn’t a smell. Specially trained bed bug scent-detecting dogs can detect bed bug odors in small infestations of even just one or two bed bugs.
Bed bugs don’t really follow any season. However, pest management professionals tend to perform more bed bug services in the summer and early fall. This seems to correlate with the way we travel as a society, vacationing during the summer and early fall. Travelers pick up bed bugs, bring them home, and it can take a month or more before they realize they now have an infestation.
Bed bugs do not hibernate, and since they typically live in temperature-controlled environments they can show up during winter months.
Bed bugs do not transmit disease. The medical significance of bed bugs (in addition to the fact that they feed on human blood) is associated with secondary infections at bite sites due to scratching open bites. The most problematic side effects from bed bug bites are probably the psychological ones. Experiencing a bed bug infestation can be a very emotional and highly stressful experience.
Newer chemical treatments have not proven to be as effective as those used in the past. Before the 1950s, there was heavy use of a chemical known as DDT. DDT was a very effective material, however, it had a negative impact on the environment and its use was discontinued in the US.
Pest control methods have also changed. In the past, pest management professionals were very liberal with insecticide applications. Current technicians are more cautious with their applications and most treatments consist of low amounts of safer and more environmentally friendly products. Additionally, increasing regulations on pesticide use have put strict limitations on the amount and places where insecticides can be applied.
Some bed bugs have developed a resistance to modern chemical treatments. Furthermore, very few newer chemicals are expected to enter the market due to the high standards of safety set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to protect human health and the environment.
Increased international travel to and from distant parts of the world is a likely contributor to the resurgence of bed bugs in North America as well as several other developed countries. In many parts of the world, bed bugs have always been a problem and travelers staying in bed bug-prone areas may be bringing them home in their luggage.
Bed bugs have beak-like mouthparts (proboscis) that are specifically designed to cut skin and suck blood. The proboscis is kept tucked beneath the bed bug when not in use.
When bed bugs feed, the proboscis is placed at a right angle to the skin, and the bugs rock back and forth during insertion. Once in the skin, cutting parts of the proboscis slide through the tissues until a suitable blood vessel is found, and the blood is then sucked up. The pressure from the blood in the vessel is used to transmit the blood into the insect.
The bed bug swells as it fills with blood, and feeding may take anywhere from 5 to 15 minutes. Similar to mosquitoes, when a bed bug bites, it releases anticoagulant and anesthetic compounds that keep the blood flowing freely and make the bite virtually pain-free. After feeding, bed bugs will quickly return to their hiding place, where they will spend several days digesting the blood meal.
Bed bugs are sensitive to disturbance and will remove their proboscis to discontinue feeding if the food source moves, or becomes restless. Once settled, bed bugs will re-insert their proboscis and begin to feed again. This behavior can sometimes explain multiple bites in the same, or nearby, location.
Bed bug bites can be itchy and become inflamed, but generally do not require medical attention. If you are worried or think you are having any kind of reaction contact a physician.
As of right now, bed bugs have never been proven to transmit any disease organism to humans. Studies are always being conducted and this could change down the road.
While you can eradicate a bed bug infestation, there is no way to prevent future infestations due to the nature of how bed bugs are brought into human structures. The key to preventing future infestations is educating yourself. Learn how bed bugs travel, and how you may have gotten them, and then change that behavior to make sure that you don’t get them again. Additionally, be vigilant for bed bugs and regularly inspect your bed or other at-risk areas. The earlier you detect an infestation, the easier it will be to get rid of them.
There are a variety of bed bug treatments that can be used to remediate a bed bug infestation, but none can prevent you from bringing them home with you in the future. Some bed bug treatments include:
An expert in bed bug removal can use a variety of treatment methods. Ehrlich bed bug pest control experts have a variety of methods to detect and get rid of bed bugs. Your bed bug pest control expert will work with you to determine what options will work best in each situation.
It all depends on the situation. The use of a heat treatment, in conjunction with some chemical applications, has proven to be very effective. However, conventional treatments with chemical treatments can also eliminate infestations.
It’s not that bed bugs are hard to kill, it’s that they are experts at hiding. If you miss just one area with a few bed bugs, the infestation can bounce back. Additionally, bed bug eggs are resistant to most chemicals. Therefore, multiple treatments are required in order to ensure that all eggs have hatched and the nymphs were treated.
There are no effective natural methods on the market for bed bug removal. If you are looking for a more environmentally friendly option, then a heat treatment may be the best option. Although heat treatments are usually done in combination with chemical treatments, they can also be used as a stand-alone treatment.
You can do a full inspection in your hotel room, looking for bed bugs, cast skins, and fecal staining by checking:
The mattress – including the corners, mattress cover, blankets, and sheets
The box spring – including seams, dust ruffles, and attached bed frame or legs
The headboard and wall hangings above the bed – headboards can sometimes be removed from the wall and can be inspected. Check behind wall hangings, especially around the frame edges.
All accessible areas around the bed – including the nightstand and any objects on it, such as the clock and lamp bases.
In order to prevent bed bug infestations, it’s important to eliminate ways for bed bugs to hitchhike onto your belongings. Don’t leave your suitcase on the bed or on the floor. Instead, keep your suitcase on the luggage rack, coffee table, or in the bathtub. Do not place clothing in the drawers or piled up on the floor. Keep your clothes in your suitcase and store dirty clothes inside a hanging plastic garbage bag or inside the suitcase as well.
You do not need to throw infested furniture away. Generally a pest management professional will not recommend disposal, unless the infestation is extreme. It’s generally more cost effective to treat infested furniture or individual objects.
Sometimes bed bugs are missed. They are very good at hiding, and even with a thorough inspection and treatment, they can be overlooked. Bed bugs can also be re-introduced from the original source of infestation, and/or any other location. It is important to determine the source of the initial infestation and take the necessary steps to prevent re-introduction from any location.